Abbreviations

General

In general, abbreviations should be avoided in written text and should only be used in parenthetical notes, footnotes or bibliographic citations. Even such common abbreviations as the following should not be used in text.
avoid

replace with
e.g.,

for example,
i.e.,

that is, namely
etc.,

and so forth,
and so on,
and more
vs.

versus

Countries

Do not abbreviate countries, alone or when mentioning with a city. Exceptions include certain uses of U.S., U.K. and U.A.E., etc.
  • She used to live in London, England, which is in the U.K. Now she lives in the U.S.

Italics

The following abbreviations should not be italicized:
  • ibid.
  • i.e.,
  • et al.
  • e.g.,

Commas

Commas are used after the following abbreviations.
  • i.e.,
  • e.g.,